The ecology and control of cereal cyst nematode in southern Australia is reviewed. The wide distribution of Heterodera avenae in Victoria and South Australia is. A key based on cyst and juvenile characters is given for identification of 12 valid Heterodera species in the H. avenae group. A compendium providing the most. World distribution of the cereal-cyst nematode is herein reviewed. It is suggested that Heterodera avenae originated in Europe and has been widely.

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Vulval cones of cysts mainly occupied by hyaline vaginal structure. Thresholds of harmfulness depend on the population density of the nematode and differ among various cultivars and varieties. Cyst characters wvenae most useful for separating species; these include shape, color, cyst wall pattern, fenestration, vulval slit length, and the posterior cone including presence or absence of bullae and underbridge.

Retrieved July avebae, Support Center Support Center. Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Esophageal glands ventral and ventro-lateral to intestine; dorsal with larger nucleus located closely behind esophago-intestinal junction, subventrals extending past the dorsal. Articles from Journal of Nematology are provided here courtesy of Society of Nematologists.


Average cyst size 0. Introduction The host range of H. Schmidt, Heterodera ustinovi Kirjanova, [1] Heterodera schachtii avemae. The resowing of damaged wheat crops or the application of nitrogenous fertilizers rarely improve grain yields.

Plant parasitic nematodes – southern and western regions. Oats Oat leaves become red.

Excretory pore near esophago-intestinal junction. Webarchive template wayback links Articles with ‘species’ microformats. Heavily infected plants have reduced tillering.

Economic considerations set limits to crop rotation because wheat is often more profitable than other crops and therefore this option is unattractive. They come to lie parallel avrnae the main axis with their heads just within the endodermis. Lateral fields disappearing near middle to tail.

Journal List J Nematol v. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Please review our privacy policy. A chill factor may be involved in hatching; rate of hatch can be increased by cereal root exudates.

Ecology and Control of Cereal Cyst Nematode (Heterodera avenae) in Southern Australia

Cereal crops infected with this nematode are more susceptible to infection by fungal diseases such as rhizoctonia root rot. The larvae may remain in anabiosis within yeterodera cyst for several years until suitable host plants become available.

Most cysts contain eggs, but large ones may contain more than Anderson, Lip region rounded, offset, with annules. The natural population levels can be augmented by altering rotation systems and by introducing artificial inocula.


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In Australia, chemical control was extensively used for instant results. The eggs are oval and the vermiform larvae moult four times. An integrated approach to reduce the nematode densities to subthreshold levels is currently advocated. First- and second-stage juveniles folded 4 times within the aavenae.

Abstract The ecology and control of cereal cyst nematode in southern Australia is reviewed. Causes yellowing of plants; much branching and some swelling of roots may occur, particularly in oats and wheat. Nematicides are effective, but not economical unless used for more than one crop. Abstract A key based on cyst and juvenile characters is given for identification of 12 valid Heterodera species in the H.

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