Hawala, an ancient banking system that originated in the Mid- at http:/ /www. In essence, hawala is a transfer or remittance from one party to another, without In the case of India, Interpol places the size of hawala at possibly 40 percent of . One de nition from Interpol is that Hawala is “money transfer without money movement.” Hawala originated in Asia during ancient times, and is used in many.

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In Novemberthe Bush administration froze the assets of Al-Barakata Somali remittance hawala company used primarily by a large number of Somali immigrants.

As an amorphous collection of independent operators, hawalas do not depend on a single location or infrastruc ture. Erkan, Ozgur Erlich, Reuven Dr. That is, removing or reducing the fees charged on individuals sending money to their families. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Bongers, Rob Borg, Annika Dr.

The Ninth Recommendation adopted on October 22, noted that danger posed by money couriers and called on countries to adopt measures to detect the physical cross-border movement of currency and bearer negotiated instruments.

Hawaladars”CBSSomal banca, archived from the original onretrieved Parzen, Jacob Passig, David Prof.

In South Asiait appears to have developed into a fully-fledged money market instrument, which was only gradually replaced by the instruments of the formal banking system in the first half of the 20th century. The fact is, though, that hawala is essentially an economic phenomenon. The vast majority of the money is from legal, legitimate sources, and the intsrpol organizations are numerous and extremely powerful.

Internet / Home – INTERPOL

The person sending the funds from Country A to a beneficiary in Country B deals only with the hawalandar who provides the customer with an authentication code which the customer transmit to his beneficiary. It would remain so even if there were no terrorist international transfers, drug trade or money laundering.

Hawala or hewala Arabic: Shavit, Shabtai Shay, Shaul Dr. The transaction rests upon a single communication between hawaladars and is often not recorded or guaranteed by a written contract. The system has global reach. For example, an expatriate Pakistani worker in the UAE wishes to send money back home. Maimbo unfortunately does state whether the banning of informal remittance in India drove the system underground.


In summary, the hawala system, especially in South Asia, is extensive, extremely liquid and a rational choice for poorer segments of the population.

Trust and extensive use of connections are the components ingerpol distinguish it from other remittance systems. Dawn April 5, ingerpol According to author Sam Vaknin, while there are large hawaladar operators with networks of middlemen in cities across many countries, most hawaladars are small businesses who work at hawala as a sideline or moonlighting operation.

The Tuareg rebellion left Northern Mali without an official money transfer service for months. Chen, Weixiong Chertoff, Michael H. As settlements often take place without any foreign exchange transactions, they can be made at other than official exchange rates.

Briefing Note – The Hawala System & The International Monetary Fund

The Fourth Recommendation points to the need for countries, businesses and other entities to notify the competent authorities if they suspect that funds are somehow relates to, or are to be used for terrorism, terrorist acts or terrorist organisations.

Faktor, Natalie Falk, Ophir Dr. Ben Artzi, Asher Chief Supt. The unique feature of the system is that no promissory instruments are exchanged between the hawala brokers; the transaction takes place entirely on the honour system.

If those countries had reasonably expedient, well-regulated and user-friendly banks, then the hawala system would not have flourished and would not have been abused by terrorists and criminal elements.

Rooks, Kane Rose, Gregory Prof. The FATF realising that the financial system is open to manipulation and abuse wants to make it more transparent.

Sahni, Ajai Sales, Nathan Prof. Obviously, some network of family or connections among hawaladars is required to make such a system work on a large-scale and ongoing basis. In addition to commissions, hawala brokers often earn their profits through bypassing official exchange rates.


Retrieved 26 November Moreover, in some parts of the world it is the only option for legitimate fund transfers, and has even been used by aid organizations in areas where it is the best-functioning institution.

The system is ideal for use in isolated localities like the tribal areas of Pakistan and Afghanistan, where formal financial institutions are rare. Hawala is attractive to customers because it provides a fast and convenient transfer of funds, usually with a far lower commission than that charged by banks.

Oseran, Shai Osirof, Richardo Dr. Victoria Barber Vidino, Lorenzo Dr. On the other hand, Islamic law and the later common law “had no difficulty in accepting agency as one of its institutions in the field of contracts and of obligations in general”.

The Reserve Bank of India describes the Hundi as “an unconditional order in writing made by a person directing another to pay a certain sum of money to a person named in the order. In August the last Al-Barakat representatives were taken off the U.

Hawala: The Terrorist’s Informal Financial Mechanism

The beneficiary collects the equivalent amount of the money from another hawalandarwhich his benefactor had deposited with the hawalandar in Country A. The Wall Street Journal. While seeming a bit mysterious to outsiders, the hawala is comparable in mechanics and economic structure to most other remittance alternatives, including those that run through licensed channels.

E Mann, Yossi Dr. In the second part, the focus shifts to analysing some of the actions taken by the IMF and the FATF in their campaign to combat the hawala system.

Why Use Hawala The hawala system provides an array of advantages for its users.